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"मालदामण्डलम्" इत्यस्य संस्करणे भेदः

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{{India Districts
| Name = मालदामण्डलम्
| Name = मालदमण्डलम्
| Local = মালদহ জেলা
| State =[[पश्चिमबङ्गराज्यम्]]
| State =[[पश्चिमबङ्गराज्यम्]]
| Division =जलपाइगुडिविभागः
| HQ = इङ्गलिश् -बाजार
| Map = Malda district.svg
| Area = ३७३३
| Website = http://malda.nic.in/
}}
==प्रसङ्गः==
'''मालदामण्डलम्''' वा "मालदहमण्डलम्" (बाङ्गला-'''মালদহ''' বা '''মালদা''' ) [[पश्चिमबङ्गराज्यम्|पश्चिमबङ्गराज्यस्य]] जलपाइगुडिविभागस्य एकं मण्डलम् । मण्डलमिदं राज्यस्य राजधानी[[कोलकाता|कोलकातातः]]२१५ कि मी उत्तरे अवस्थितम् । [[आम्रफलम्|आम्रफलं]] तथा [[चीनांशुकः|चीनांशुकस्य]] कृषिः अस्य मण्डलस्य उल्लेखयोग्यः वैशिष्ट्यम् । प्रसिद्धलोकसंस्कृतिः '''गम्भीरा'''याः उद्भवस्थलं मालदामण्डलमेव । मालदामण्डलस्य केन्द्रं इङ्गलिश-बाजारनगरं मालदा नाम्ना अपि विख्यातम् । पुराकाले मालदामण्डलं [[पश्चिमबङ्गराज्यम्|पश्चिमबङ्गराज्यस्य]] राजधानी आसीत् । मालदामण्डलम् पारम्परिक शिक्षा-संस्कृतेः पोषणं करोति । इङ्गलिश-बाजारनगरस्य विस्तारः पुरातन-मालदानगरमपि महानन्दातटसमीपे वर्तते । आश्चर्यविषयोऽस्ति मालदामण्डलस्य स्वाधीनता १९४७ वर्षस्य अगष्टमासस्य १७ दिनाङ्के अभवत् इति ।<br />
 
'''मालदामण्डलम्''' वा "मालदहमण्डलम्" (बाङ्गला-'''মালদহ''' বা '''মালদা''' ) [[पश्चिमबङ्गराज्यम्|पश्चिमबङ्गराज्यस्य]] जलपाइगुडिविभागस्य एकं मण्डलम् ।
==नामकरणम्==
'''मालदा''' इति नामकरणं अस्य मण्डलस्य आदिवासिगणः ''मलद" इति कौमगोष्ठ्यात् आगतम् । भिन्नमतानुसारं फ़ारसि "माल"(धनसम्पदः) एवं बाङ्गला "दह" इति शब्दद्वयस्य समन्वयेन '''मालदह''' इति सिद्ध्यति । <br />
[[चित्रम्:Entry gate at Gaur, Malda..jpg|Thumb|200px|गौडदेशः]]
==इतिहासः==
 
===प्राक्-गौडदेशः===
[[Pāṇini]] mentioned a city named ''Gourpura'', which by strong reason may be identified as the city of ''Gouda'', ruins of which are situated in this district. Examples are legion of the relics of a predecessor kingdom being used in the monuments of the successor kingdoms.
 
It had been within the limits of ancient ''Gour'' and ''Pandua'' ([[Pundrabardhana]]). These two cities had been the capital of Bengal in ancient and medieval ages and are equidistant, north and south, from [[English Bazar]] town (once known as Engelzavad established by the British rulers).
 
The boundary of Gour was changed in different ages since the 5th century BC, and its name can be found in [[Purana|Puranic]] texts. [[Pundranagara]] was the provincial capital of the [[Maurya Empire]]. Gour and [[Pundravardhana]] formed parts of the Mourya empire as is evinced from the [[inscription]]s, [[Brāhmī script|Brahmi]] script on a seal discovered from the ruins of [[Mahasthangarh]] in the [[Bogra District]] of [[Bangladesh]]. [[Hiuen Tsang]] saw many [[Asoka]]n [[stupa]]s at [[Pundravardhana]].
==परिसीमा==
'''मालदा'''मण्डलस्य पश्चिमदिशि [[बिहारराज्यम्]] अस्ति । तथा उत्तरदिशि उत्तरदिनाजपुरं दक्षिणदिनाजपुरमण्डलञ्च स्तः । पूर्वदिशि [[बाङ्गलादेशः]] तथा दक्षिणे [[मुर्शिदावादमण्डलम्|मुर्शिदावादमण्डलं]] विराजते ।
 
The inscriptions discovered in the district of undivided [[Dinajpur District, Bangladesh|Dinajpur]] and other parts of North Bengal, along with the [[Allahabad]] pillar inscriptions of [[Samudragupta]], clearly indicate that the whole of [[North Bengal]] as far east as [[Kamrup region|Kamrup]] formed a part of the [[Gupta Empire]].
 
After the Guptas in the beginning of 7th century AD [[Sasanka]], the king of Karnasubarna as well as the king of [[Gauḍa region|Gauda]] ruled independently for more than three decades. From the middle of 8th century to the end of 11th century the Pala dynasty ruled Bengal, the kings were devoted to [[Buddhism]]. It was during their reign that the Jagadalla Vihara (monastery) in Barindri flourished paralleling with [[Nalanda]], Vikramshila and Devikot.
মালদহ জেলার নামকরণ এই জেলার আদি বাসিন্দা ‘মলদ’ কৌমগোষ্ঠীর নাম থেকে। অন্যমতে [[ফারসি ভাষা|ফারসি]] ‘মাল’ (ধনসম্পদ) ও বাংলা ‘দহ’ শব্দদ্বয়ের সমন্বয়ে এই জেলার নামটির উৎপত্তি।
 
===गौडदेशः===
ব্রিটিশ শাসনের আদিপর্বে মালদহ জেলার কোনো অস্তিত্ব ছিল না। এই জেলার কিয়দংশ [[পূর্ণিয়া জেলা]]র ও অবশিষ্টাংশ [[অবিভক্ত দিনাজপুর জেলা]]র অন্তর্ভুক্ত ছিল। ১৮৫৯ সাল থেকে ১৮৭৬ সাল পর্যন্ত মালদহ জেলা [[রাজশাহী বিভাগ|রাজশাহী বিভাগের]] অন্তর্গত ছিল। ১৮৭৬ সালে এই জেলা [[ভাগলপুর বিভাগ|ভাগলপুর বিভাগের]] অন্তর্ভুক্ত হয় এবং ১৯০০ সালে পুনরায় রাজশাহী বিভাগের অন্তর্গত হয়। ১৯৪৭ সালের ১৭ অগস্ট শিবগঞ্জ, নবাবগঞ্জ, ভোলাঘাট, নাচোল ও গোমস্তাপুর থানা বাদে মালদহ জেলা [[ভারত অধিরাজ্য|ভারত অধিরাজ্যের]] অন্তর্ভুক্ত হয়। বর্তমানে এটি জলপাইগুড়ি বিভাগের অন্তর্গত।
The [[Pala empire]] yielded to the emergence of [[Sen Dynasty]], the Sen rulers were [[Hindu]]s, and in the habit of moving from place to place within their kingdom. During this time, Buddhism went on the defensive. It evantually disappeared from the demographic map of Bengal. At the time of Lakshman Sen Goud was known as Lakshmanabati. The Sen kings ruled Bengal till [[Muhammad Khilji|Bakhtiyar Khalji]] conquered Bengal in 1204 AD.
 
Thereafter the [[Muslim]] rule started. The name Mal Daha was coined (Mal= riches, Daha= lake). Sultan [[Ilyas Shah]], [[Ilyas Shahi dynasty|Firuz Shah]], [[Sikandar Shah]], [[Raja Ganesha]], [[Alauddin Hussain Shah]] and [[Nasiruddin Nasrat Shah]] are the notable rulers of medieval age. Afghan warrior [[Sher Shah Suri]] invaded [[Gaur|Gour]] and was repelled by [[Mughal emperor]] [[Humayun]]. [[Humayun]] loving the [[mango]] of [[Gaur|Gour]] named the place as Jannatabad (garden of heaven). [[Firuz Shah Tughlaq]], [[Ghiyasuddin Mahmud Shah|Ghiyasuddin]] and [[Mughal Empire|Mughal]] army invaded [[Gaur|Gour]] to suppress rebellion several time. Relics of Muslim structures are present as [[Gaur|Firuz minar]], [[Adina Mosque]] (the largest [[mosque]] of [[South Asia]] then), Qutwali gate etc. During the Mughal rule, the capital was removed to [[Dhaka]] due to a course change of the river [[Ganges]]. [[Muslim]] rule ended in 1757. [[Koch dynasty|Koch]] army invasion increased during the downfall of [[Gaur|Gour]].
মালদহ একটি কৃষিনির্ভর জেলা। বৃহৎ শিল্পে এই জেলা বিশেষ অনুন্নত হলেও এখানকার ক্ষুদ্র ও কুটির শিল্পের বিশেষ খ্যাতি রয়েছে। সুলতানি যুগের বিভিন্ন স্থাপত্য নিদর্শনকে কেন্দ্র করে একটি উল্লেখযোগ্য পর্যটন শিল্পও এখানে বিকাশলাভ করেছে। মালদহের [[গৌড়বঙ্গ বিশ্ববিদ্যালয়]] উত্তরবঙ্গের দ্বিতীয় সাধারণ বিশ্ববিদ্যালয়।
 
===गौडोत्तरकालः===
The [[East India Company|British]] rule started in 1757. The English traders settled in the southern bank of the river [[Mahananda River|Mahananda]]. Some indigo plant chambers, trade center and offices were established. [[William Carey (missionary)|William Carey]] worked here. But the glorious days were gone.
 
This district was formed out of some portions of outlying areas of [[Purnia]], [[Dinajpur District, Bangladesh|Dinajpur]] and [[Rajshahi District|Rajshahi]] districts in 1813. At the time of Dr. B. Hamilton (1808&ndash;09), the present thanas of [[Gazole]], Malda, [[Bamongola]], and part of [[Habibpur]] were included in the district of Dinajpur and the thanas of Harischandrapur, Kharba, Ratua, Manikchak, and Kaliachak were included in the district of Purnia. In 1813, in consequence of the prevalence of serious crimes in the Kaliachak and Sahebganj thanas and also on the rivers, a Joint Magistrate and Deputy Collector was appointed at English Bazar, with jurisdiction over a number of police stations centering that place and taken from the two districts. Thus the district of Malda was born. The year 1832 saw the establishment of separate treasury and the year 1859 the posting of a full-fledged magistrate and collector.
 
Up to 1876, this district formed part of [[Rajshahi Division]] and between 1876 and 1905, it formed part of [[Bhagalpur Division]]. In 1905, it was again transferred to Rajshahi Division and until 1947, Malda remained in this division. During the first [[Partition of Bengal (1905)|Partition of Bengal]] of 1905, this district was attached with the newly created province of [[Eastern Bengal and Assam]]. Malda has a history of Indigo movement led by Rafique Mondal. The santhals got insurgent and captured historic [[Adina Mosque]] in support of Jeetu. Again in August 1947 this district was affected by partition. Between 12&ndash;15 August 1947, the fate of the district as to which side it should go, to Pakistan or to India, was undecided because the announcement of the partition award of Sir Radcliffe did not make this point clear. During these few days the district was under a Magistrate of [[East Pakistan]]. When the details of the [[Radcliffe Award]] were published, the district came over to [[West Bengal]] on 17 August 1947. However, the sub-division of [[Nawabganj District|Nawabganj]] was severed from Malda and was given to [[East Pakistan]] as a sub-division of the [[Rajshahi]] district.
 
===वर्तमानमालदा===
{{Unreferenced section|date=August 2009}}
Maldah has been long a neglected district since independence of India, but it became a prominent place in West Bengal after the late [[A. B. A. Ghani Khan Chowdhury]], one of the prominent personality of eastern India (b. 1927-d.2006), took steps within his various capacities being minister of different portfolios from state to national ministries of India to develop Malda.
 
For 28 years, West Bengal was ruled by the opponents of Mr. Khan Chowdhury, who succeeded to establish a unique relation with him, and the district witnessed the fruit of this coalition in industrial sector.Sukhjeet Starch Ltd, East End Silk Ltd. and lots of other enterprises have increased. East India Agro at Rishipur Anchal, which Deals with MANGO PULP & RAW JUTE.There is also a GO-NGO partnership on the card, especially artisan-based business cluster development and SME establishment is within the mission.
Malda has good potential in Agro Products like Mango, Jute, silk .
 
Maldah is the one of two(Murshidabad the other Muslim majority district in West Bengal) Muslim majority district in West Bengal. Due to Political differences till date Maldah is still a neglected District. In recent times Land Mafia's are plenty in the city, the city is rising in height but in the past 30 to 40 years the size of the city remains the same.
Political goons rule the city .
 
==Geography==
The [[latitude]] range is 24°40’20" N to 25°32’08" N, and the [[longitude]] range is 87°45’50" E to 88°28’10" E. The district covers an area of {{convert|3733.66|km2|sqmi|1}}. The total population (as of 2001 Census) was recorded as 3,290,160.
 
Malda is called the gateway of North [[Bengal]]. It was once the capital of Gour-Banga with its {{convert|3733|km2|sqmi|0}} lay of the land classified into Tal, Diara, and Barind.
 
To the south is [[Murshidabad district]], to the north are [[North Dinajpur| North Dinajpur district]] and [[South Dinajpur|South Dinajpur district]]. To the east is the international border with [[Bangladesh]]. To the west is [[Santhal Parganas]] of [[Jharkhand]] and [[Purnea]] of [[Bihar]]
 
*'''Erosion'''
Malda region is washed by the waves of the rivers [[Ganges]], [[Mahananda River|Mahananda]], Fulahar and Kalindri. A 1998 flood and recent erosion have caused trouble. Manikchak is the most vulnerable region.
 
===Malda City===
{{Main|English Bazar}}
 
'''Malda''', the district headquarters which lends its name to the district, during its early days grew up only near the side of the river Mahananda, and now the place is known as Phulbari. Some of the oldest houses can be found here. The city started to grow since 1925-1930. Now nearly a half-million people live in this city, and it is one of the biggest cities of West Bengal. It is a part of the former Gour. The town is recognized as the English Bazaar municipality. Its notable railway station is named as [[Malda Town railway station|Malda Town]].
 
==Economy==
In 2006 the [[Ministry of Panchayati Raj]] named Malda one of the country's 250 [[Poverty in India|most backward districts]] (out of a total of [[Districts of India|640]]).<ref name=brgf/> It is one of the eleven districts in West Bengal currently receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme (BRGF).<ref name=brgf>{{cite web|author=Ministry of Panchayati Raj|date=September 8, 2009|title=A Note on the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme|publisher=National Institute of Rural Development|url=http://www.nird.org.in/brgf/doc/brgf_BackgroundNote.pdf|accessdate=September 27, 2011}}</ref>
 
==Divisions==
 
===Administrative Subdivisions===
The district comprises two subdivisions: Chanchal and Malda Sadar. Chanchal consists of six community development blocks: Chanchal&ndash;I, Chanchal&ndash;II, Ratua&ndash;I, Ratua&ndash;II, Harishchandrapur&ndash;I and Harishchandrapur&ndash;II. Malda Sadar subdivision consists of [[Old Maldah]] municipality, [[English Bazar]] municipality and nine community development blocks: English Bazar, Gazole, Habibpur, Kaliachak&ndash;I, Kaliachak&ndash;II, Kaliachak&ndash;III, Manickchak, Old Maldah and Bamangola.
==অবস্থান এবং জনসংখ্যা==
* [[অক্ষাংশ]]: ২৪ ডিগ্রী ৪০' ২০" উঃ থেকে ২৫ ডিগ্রী ৩২' ০৮" উঃ
* মোট জনসংখ্যা (২০০১ জনগণনা): ৩,২৯০,১৬০
*ধর্ম:মুসলিম ৪৯.৭২%,হিন্দু ৪৯.২৮%,অন্যান্য১%।
 
 
==परिसीमा==
'''मालदा'''मण्डलस्य पश्चिमदिशि [[बिहारराज्यम्]] अस्ति । तथा उत्तरदिशि उत्तरदिनाजपुरं दक्षिणदिनाजपुरमण्डलञ्च स्तः । पूर्वदिशि [[बाङ्गलादेशः]] तथा दक्षिणे [[मुर्शिदावादमण्डलम्|मुर्शिदावादमण्डलं]] विराजते ।
{{Geographic location
|Centre = मालदामण्डलम्
|North = [[उत्तरदिनाजपुरमण्ड्लम्]]
|Northeast = [[दक्षिणदिनाजपुरमण्डलम्]]
|East = ''[[बाङ्गलादेशः]]''
|Southeast =
|South = [[मुर्शिदावादमण्डलम्]]
|Southwest =
|West = [[साहिबगंज मण्डलः|साहिबगंजमण्डलम्]], [[झारखण्डराज्यम्]]
|Northwest = [[कटिहारमण्डलम्]], [[बिहारराज्यम्]]
|left
}}
५,५७२

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