फलकम्:Infobox planet

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Other templates redirecting here: Infobox Nonstellar body · Infobox TNO

This template has been designed for the presentation of information on non-stellar astronomical bodies: planets (including extrasolar planets), dwarf planets, moons and minor planets. Some parameters will not be applicable to individual types; these may be omitted without any problems to the template's function.

Usage notes[सम्पादयतु]

  • This template expects that the <references /> tag will be present in articles setting the minorplanet parameter to yes. Pages without a <references /> tag will show Cite error: There are <ref> tags on this page for a group named "note", but the references will not show without a <ref group="note"> tag; see Help:Cite errors. at the bottom of the page.
  • When parameters relating to minor planets are used (e.g. mp_name), several subheadings and wikilinks within the template are made specific to minor planets. For standard formulas for computable values and sources of physical data, see Template talk:Infobox Nonstellar body#Computed values and Standard asteroid physical characteristics.
  • The Proper Orbital Element "Proper orbital period" (in Julian Years and Days) is calculated within the template from Proper Mean Motion and so does not require a parameter.
  • For bodies orbiting bodies other than the Sun, include the parameter |apsis = (appropriate suffix). This will replace various parameters' default "-helion" suffix to the suffix set by the apsis parameter. For example, setting |apsis = astron converts the labels "perihelion", "aphelion" and "Argument of perihelion" into "periastron", "apastron" and "Argument of periastron" respectively.

Recommended parameters[सम्पादयतु]

For a list of all parameters, see All parameters below.

Exosolar planets[सम्पादयतु]

Discovered by discoverer
Discovery site discovery_site
Discovery date discovered
Detection method discovery_method
Alternate name(s)alt_names
Semi-major axis semimajor
Eccentricity eccentricity
Orbital period period
Average orbital speed avg_speed
Inclination inclination
Angular distance angular_dist
Longitude of periastron long_periastron
Time of periastron time_periastron
Semi-amplitude semi-amplitude
Physical characteristics
Mean radius mean_radius
Surface area surface_area
Volume volume
Mass mass
Mean density density
Equatorial surface gravitysurface_grav
Escape velocityescape_velocity
Temperature single_temperature
{{Infobox planet
|name             =   <!--(Common/agreed name)-->
|image            = 
|caption          = 
|apsis            = astron
|discovery_ref    =   <!--(Any appropriate <ref>(s) to append to the name)-->
|discoverer       = 
|discovery_site   = 
|discovered       =   <!--(Date)-->
|discovery_method = 
|alt_names        =   <!--(Any alternative names for the body)-->
|periastron        = 
|apoastron         = 
|semimajor        = 
|avg_speed        =   <!--(Average orbital speed)-->
|eccentricity     = 
|period           =   <!--(Orbital period)-->
|inclination      = 
|angular_dist     = 
|long_periastron  =   <!--(Longitude of periastron)-->
|time_periastron  =   <!--(Time of periastron)-->
|semi-amplitude   = 
|mean_radius      = 
|surface_area     = 
|volume           = 
|density          = 
|mass             = 
|surface_grav     =   <!--Equatorial surface gravity-->
|escape_velocity  = 
|albedo           = 
|single_temperature = 

Minor planets[सम्पादयतु]

name  symbol
Discovered by discoverer
Discovery site discovery site
Discovery date discovered
MPC designation mp_name
Alternate name(s)alt_names
Minor planet
Epoch epoch
Perihelion perihelion
Semi-major axis semimajor
Eccentricity eccentricity
Orbital period period
Average orbital speed avg_speed
Mean anomaly mean_anomaly
Inclination inclination
Longitude of ascending node asc_node
Argument of perihelion arg_peri
Satellites satellites
Proper semi-major axis p_semi_major AU
Proper eccentricity p_eccentricity
Proper inclination p_inclination
Proper mean motion 360 deg/yr
Proper orbital period yr
(365.25 d)
Precession of perihelion perihelion_rate arcsec/yr
Precession of the ascending node node_rate arcsec/yr
Physical characteristics
Dimensions dimensions
Mass mass
Mean density density
Equatorial surface gravitysurface_grav
Escape velocityescape_velocity
Sidereal rotation
Axial tilt axial_tilt
Pole ecliptic latitude pole_ecliptic_lat
Pole ecliptic longitude pole_ecliptic_lon
Surface temp.
Spectral typespectral_type
Absolute magnitude (H) abs_magnitude
{{Infobox planet
|width           = 25em
|name            = 
|symbol          = 
|background      = #FFFFC0
|image           = 
|caption         = 
|discovery_ref   = <ref>....</ref>
|discoverer      = 
|discovered      = 
|discovery_site   = ''discovery_site''
|mp_name         =   <!--(Minor planet name)-->
|mp_category     =   <!--(Minor planet category)-->
|alt_names       =   <!--(Alternative names)-->
|orbit_ref       = <ref> Osculating Orbital Elements </ref>
|epoch           = 
|aphelion        = 
|perihelion      = 
|semimajor       = 
|eccentricity    = 
|period          = 
|avg_speed       =   <!--(Average orbital speed)-->
|inclination     = 
|asc_node        =   <!--(Longitude of ascending node)-->
|mean_anomaly    = 
|arg_peri        =   <!--(Argument of perihelion)-->
|p_orbit_ref     = <ref> Proper Orbital Elements </ref>
|p_semimajor     =
|p_eccentricity  =
|p_inclination   =
|p_mean_motion   =   <!--(Proper orbital mean motion)-->
|perihelion_rate =   <!--(Proper perihelic precession rate)-->
|node_rate       =   <!--(Proper nodal precession rate)-->
|satellites      = 
|dimensions      = 
|mass            = 
|density         = 
|surface_grav    =   <!--(Equatorial surface gravity)-->
|escape_velocity = 
|sidereal_day    = 
|axial_tilt      = 
|pole_ecliptic_lat =   <!--(Pole ecliptic latitude)-->
|pole_ecliptic_lon =   <!--(Pole ecliptic longitude)-->
|albedo          = 
|temp_name1      = 
|mean_temp_1     = 
|max_temp_1      = 
|temp_name2      = 
|max_temp_2      = 
|spectral_type   = 
|abs_magnitude   =   <!--(Absolute magnitude)-->

See here for means of semi-automating this template's transclusion as regards minor planets.

  • For satellites of minor planets, include the parameter |apsis = astron (see above).

Notes on usage[सम्पादयतु]

From Wikipedia:WikiProject Astronomical objects/Infoboxes [१]
Body name
[image of object]
Discovered by ___name___
Discovered on ___date___
Orbital characteristics (Epoch J2000)
Semi-major axis km
Orbital circumference Tm (AU)
Eccentricity number
Perihelion km (AU)
Aphelion km (AU)
Orbital period d
(other units, such as Julian yr)
Synodic period d (a)
(w/respect to Earth)
Avg. orbital speed km/s
Max. orbital speed km/s
Min. orbital speed km/s
Inclination (to Ecliptic) °
(° to Sun's equator)
Longitude of the
ascending node
decimal ° (° ' ")
Argument of the
decimal ° (° ' ")
Satellites number
Satellite of planet (only for Moons)
Proper orbital elements
Proper semi-major axis AU
Proper eccentricity number
Proper inclination °
Proper mean motion deg/Julian yr
Proper orbital period Calculated by template in
Julian yrs and days
Precession of
arcsec/Julian yr
Precession of the
ascending node
arcsec/Julian yr
Physical characteristics
Mean diameter km
(axis × axis × axis for ellipsoids)
Equatorial diameter km (Earth units)
Polar diameter km (Earth units)
Oblateness number
Surface area km2 (Earth units)
Volume km3 (Earth units)
Mass kg (Earth units)
Mean density g/cm3
Surface gravity m/s2 (gees)
Escape velocity km/s
Rotation period d (h)
Rotation velocity km/h (m/s) (at the equator)
Obliquity °
Right ascension
of North pole
° (h min s)
Declination °
Albedo number
Surface temperature
min mean max
nnn K nnn K nnn K
Atmospheric characteristics
Pressure kPa
most common %
next-most-common %
etcetera %

Most of these entries should be measured in SI units. Some of them, however, should have more "human-accessible" units, in addition to SI units: several such cases are indicated with a second unit name in brackets. In the case of times (orbital periods, rotation), it is best to give all periods in days for comparison purposes, and provide a translation (in parentheses) into years, days, hours, etc.; whatever is most appropriate for the duration being described.

Compared to table templates for things like the elements, this template should be considered somewhat more flexible. Moons with no atmosphere whatsoever could skip the atmospheric composition section entirely, for example (though atmospheric density would still be listed). Moons also wouldn't have their orbital radii listed in AU, since AUs are such large units. For planets, use "perihelion" and "aphelion" instead of "periapsis" and "apoapsis."

In the case of "number of moons" and "is a moon of", only one of these rows will be used by any given object. There aren't any moons with moons (yet), though perhaps "co-orbital with" might be a useful row to add in a few cases.

A set of colours for use in the 2-column headers of this table:

rocky terrestrial body Transition metal color from the periodic table; rocky planets have lots of metals compared to the icy ones. Also, red is a "warmer" color than green, which fits the distribution of rocky and icy planets in the solar system.
icy terrestrial body green contrasts nicely with the pink of rocky planets. Also, on the periodic table, it's the color of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and other common components of outer-solar-system ice.
gas giant body blue skies, and noble gases on the periodic table (including helium, which is only found in large quantities on gas giants. It escapes from smaller planets). Also, two out of four gas giants prefer the cool soothing color of blue.

On orbital characteristics: The orbital circumference should be computed from the semi-major axis using Ramanujan's approximation for ellipses. The ratio of that circumference to the period then gives the average orbital speed. The minimum and maximum speeds follow from Kepler's laws: and . Note that, by convention, all orbital parameters are given in the primocentric reference system (heliocentric for the planets).

On proper orbital elements: The formulae used by the template to convert from proper mean motion to proper orbital motion are:
Oyears = 360 / M   and
Odays = 365.25 x Oyears

On physical characteristics: The surface area and volume of non-spherical objects (e.g. moonlets, asteroids) must use the proper ellipsoid formulae, because even slight departures from sphericity will make a large difference, particularly for the area.

On the subject of obliquity: Obliquity is the angle between the object's axis of rotation and the normal to the plane of its orbit. Do not confuse this with the Tilt listed in the JPL pages, which is a measure of the angle between the local Laplace plane and the primary's equatorial plane. In fact, most inner moons have synchronous rotations, so their obliquities will be, by definition, zero. Outer moons simply have not been seen from close up enough to determine their true obliquities (although Phoebe, recently seen by the Cassini probe, is an exception; see Talk:Phoebe (moon) for the derivation of its obliquity).

All parameters[सम्पादयतु]

{{Infobox planet
|width                =   <!--(Best given in font-proportional units such as 'em')-->
|name                 = 
|symbol               =   <!--([[Image:...]])-->
|background           = 
|image                =   <!--([[Image:...]])-->
|caption              = 
|apsis                = 
|discovery_ref        = <ref>...</ref>
|discoverer           = 
|discovery_site       = 
|discovered           = 
|discovery_method     = 
|mp_name              = 
|pronounce            =
|named_after          =
|mp_category          = 
|alt_names            = 
|orbit_ref            = <ref> Osculating Orbital Elements </ref>
|epoch                = 
|aphelion             = 
|perihelion           = 
|periastron           = 
|apoastron            = 
|periapsis            = 
|apoapsis             = 
|semimajor            = 
|mean_orbit_radius    = 
|eccentricity         = 
|period               = 
|synodic_period       = 
|avg_speed            =   <!--(Average orbital speed)-->
|mean_anomaly         = 
|inclination          =
|angular_dist         =   <!--(Angular distance)-->
|asc_node             =   <!--(Longitude of ascending node)-->
|long_periastron      =   <!--(Longitude of periastron)-->
|time_periastron      =   <!--(Time of periastron)-->
|arg_peri             =   <!--(Argument of peri[helion/astron/...])-->
|semi-amplitude       = 
|p_orbit_ref          = <ref> Proper Orbital Elements </ref>
|p_semimajor          =
|p_eccentricity       =
|p_inclination        =
|p_mean_motion        =   <!--(Proper orbital mean motion)-->
|perihelion_rate      =   <!--(Proper perihelic precession rate)-->
|node_rate            =   <!--(Proper nodal precession rate)-->
|satellite_of         = 
|satellites           = 
|dimensions           = 
|flattening           = 
|equatorial_radius    = 
|polar_radius         = 
|mean_radius          = 
|circumference        = 
|surface_area         = 
|volume               = 
|mass                 = 
|density              = 
|surface_grav         =   <!--(Equatorial surface gravity)-->
|escape_velocity      = 
|sidereal_day         = 
|rot_velocity         =   <!--(Rotational velocity)-->
|axial_tilt           = 
|right_asc_north_pole =   <!--(North pole right ascension)-->
|declination          =   <!--(North pole declination)-->
|pole_ecliptic_lat    =   <!--(Pole ecliptic latitude)-->
|pole_ecliptic_lon    =   <!--(Pole ecliptic longitude)-->
|albedo               = 
|single_temperature   = 
|temp_name1           = 
|min_temp_1           = 
|mean_temp_1          = 
|max_temp_1           = 
|temp_name2           = 
|min_temp_2           = 
|mean_temp_2          = 
|max_temp_2           = 
|spectral_type        = 
|magnitude            =   <!--(Apparent magnitude)-->
|abs_magnitude        =   <!--(Absolute magnitude)-->
|angular_size         = 
|pronounce            = {{IPA-en|<!-- IPA string -->|}}
|adjectives           = 
|atmosphere_ref       = <ref>...</ref>
|surface_pressure     = 
|scale_height         = 
|atmosphere_composition = 

Computed values[सम्पादयतु]

This section documents how some minor planet parameters may be computed when they're not directly measured. More detail can be found in Standard asteroid physical characteristics.

Average orbital speed[सम्पादयतु]

This is very simply the orbital circumference divided by the orbital period.

The exact circumference of an ellipse is , where a is the semi-major axis, e the eccentricity, and the function E is the complete elliptic integral of the second kind. This gives

E is close to when e is small.

An approximation using a taylor series expansion is

AstOrb Browser computes a velocity using Ramanujan's approximation for an ellipse's circumference:

Where b is the orbit's semi-minor axis:

Surface gravity[सम्पादयतु]

मुख्यलेखः : Surface gravity

For a spherical body of mass m, and radius r, the gravitational acceleration at the surface , is given by

Where G = 6.6742×10−11 m3s−2kg−1 is the Gravitational constant, M is the mass of the body, and r its radius. This value is very approximate, as most minor planets are far from spherical.

For irregularly shaped bodies, the surface gravity will differ appreciably with location. However, at the outermost point/s, where the distance to the centre of mass is the greatest, the surface gravity is still given by a simple formula, a slightly modified version of the above that uses the largest radius

because all the body's mass is contained within this radius.

On a rotating body, the apparent weight experienced by an object on the surface is reduced by the centrifugal force, when one is away from the poles. The centrifugal acceleration experienced at the equator is

where T is the rotation period in seconds, and is the equatorial radius (usually also the maximum radius used above). The negative sign indicates that it acts in the opposite direction to the gravitational acceleration g.

The effective surface gravity at the equator is then

Escape velocity[सम्पादयतु]

For surface gravity g and radius r, the escape velocity is:

This value is much less sensitive to the factors affecting the surface gravity, mentioned above.


For asteroid albedo α, semimajor axis a, solar luminosity , and asteroid infrared emissivity ε (usually taken to be ~0.9), the approximate mean temperature T is given by:

Where σ is Stefan-Boltzmann constant. See also Torrence V. Johnson, Paul R. Weissman, Lucy-Ann A. McFadden (2007). Encyclopedia of the Solar System. Elsevier. pp. 294. ISBN 0120885891. .


The HTML mark up produced by this template includes an hCard microformat, which makes the place-name and location parsable by computers, either acting automatically to catalogue article across Wikipedia, or via a browser tool operated by a person, to (for example) add the subject to an address book. For more information about the use of microformats on Wikipedia, please see the microformat project.

If the place or venue has an "established", "founded", "opened" or similar date, specific to the day, use {{Start date}} (unless the date is before 1583 CE); if it has a URL, use {{URL}}.

hCard uses HTML classes including:

  • adr
  • category
  • country-name
  • extended-address
  • fn
  • label
  • locality
  • nickname
  • note
  • org
  • street-address
  • url
  • vcard

Please do not rename or remove these classes; nor collapse nested elements which use them.


  1. discovery_ref
  2. orbit_ref
  3. p_orbit_ref
Discovered by {{{discoverer}}}
Discovery site {{{discovery_site}}}
Discovery date {{{discovered}}}
Detection method {{{discovery_method}}}
MPC designation {{{mp_name}}}
Pronunciation {{{pronounce}}}
Named after {{{named_after}}}
Alternate name(s){{{alt_names}}}
Minor planet
Adjective {{{adjectives}}}
Epoch {{{epoch}}}
Perihelion {{{perihelion}}}
Periapsis {{{periapsis}}}
Semi-major axis {{{semimajor}}}
Mean orbit radius {{{mean_orbit_radius}}}
Eccentricity {{{eccentricity}}}
Orbital period {{{period}}}
Synodic period {{{synodic_period}}}
Average orbital speed {{{avg_speed}}}
Mean anomaly {{{mean_anomaly}}}
Inclination {{{inclination}}}
Angular distance {{{angular_dist}}}
Longitude of ascending node {{{asc_node}}}
Longitude of periastron {{{long_periastron}}}
Time of periastron {{{time_periastron}}}
Argument of perihelion {{{arg_peri}}}
Semi-amplitude {{{semi-amplitude}}}
Satellite of {{{satellite_of}}}
Satellites {{{satellites}}}
Proper semi-major axis {{{p_semimajor}}} AU
Proper eccentricity {{{p_eccentricity}}}
Proper inclination {{{p_inclination}}}
Proper mean motion {{{p_mean_motion}}} deg/yr
Proper orbital period 360 yr
(131490 d)
Precession of perihelion {{{perihelion_rate}}} arcsec/yr
Precession of the ascending node {{{node_rate}}} arcsec/yr
Physical characteristics
Dimensions {{{dimensions}}}
Mean radius {{{mean_radius}}}
Equatorial radius {{{equatorial_radius}}}
Polar radius {{{polar_radius}}}
Flattening {{{flattening}}}
Circumference {{{circumference}}}
Surface area {{{surface_area}}}
Volume {{{volume}}}
Mass {{{mass}}}
Mean density {{{density}}}
Equatorial surface gravity{{{surface_grav}}}
Escape velocity{{{escape_velocity}}}
Rotation period {{{rotation}}}
Sidereal rotation
Equatorial rotation velocity {{{rot_velocity}}}
Axial tilt {{{axial_tilt}}}
North pole right ascension {{{right_asc_north_pole}}}
North pole declination {{{declination}}}
Pole ecliptic latitude {{{pole_ecliptic_lat}}}
Pole ecliptic longitude {{{pole_ecliptic_lon}}}
Temperature {{{single_temperature}}}
Surface temp.
Spectral type{{{spectral_type}}}
Apparent magnitude {{{magnitude}}}
Absolute magnitude (H) {{{abs_magnitude}}}
Angular diameter {{{angular_size}}}
Surface pressure {{{surface_pressure}}}
Scale height {{{scale_height}}}
Composition {{{atmosphere_composition}}}

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