विकिपीडिया:IPA for Sanskrit

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फलकम्:IPA key फलकम्:Contains Indic text फलकम्:IPA notice The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Classical Sanskrit pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. For a guide to adding IPA characters to Wikipedia articles, see {{IPA-sa}} and फलकम्:Section link.

See shiksha for a more thorough discussion of the sounds of Sanskrit.

फलकम्:Horizontal TOC

Key[सम्पादयतु]

Consonants
IPA[१] Nagari[१] IAST[१] [२] English approximation
फलकम्:IPA link b about
फलकम्:IPA link bh abhor
फलकम्:IPA link ś sheep
फलकम्:IPA link d roughly like do
फलकम्:IPA link dh roughly like old house
फलकम्:IPA link roughly like North American board
फलकम्:IPA link ḍh roughly like North American birdhouse
फलकम्:IPA link g again
फलकम्:IPA link gh doghouse
फलकम्:IPA link [३] head
फलकम्:IPA link h ahead
फलकम्:IPA link y yak
फलकम्:IPA link j roughly like juice
फलकम्:IPA link jh roughly like hedgehog
फलकम्:IPA linkफलकम्:IPA link ज्ञ[४] roughly like argue
फलकम्:IPA link k skin
फलकम्:IPA link kh kin
फलकम्:IPA link l leaf
फलकम्:IPA link m much
फलकम्:IPA link n tenth
फलकम्:IPA link ñ canyon[५]
फलकम्:IPA link roughly like burnt[५]
फलकम्:IPA link bank[५]
फलकम्:IPA link p span
फलकम्:IPA link ph pan
फलकम्:IPA link r Indian roti
फलकम्:IPA link s soup
फलकम्:IPA link Somewhat like North American worship
फलकम्:IPA link t Somewhat like stable
फलकम्:IPA link th Somewhat like table
फलकम्:IPA link stable
फलकम्:IPA link ṭh table
फलकम्:IPA link c Somewhat like chew
फलकम्:IPA link ch chew
फलकम्:IPA link v between wine and vine
Vowels[५][६]
IPA Nagari IAST[२] English approximation
ɐ , a comma
फलकम्:IPA link , पा ā bra
फलकम्:IPA link , पि i sit
फलकम्:IPA link , पी ī feet
फलकम्:IPA link , पु u look
फलकम्:IPA link , पू ū loot
फलकम्:IPA link , पृ as rri
फलकम्:IPA link , पॄ as rrī
फलकम्:IPA link , पे e wait
ai , पै ai hi
फलकम्:IPA link , पो o old
au , पौ au h'ow
◌̃ ◌̃/m̐ nasal vowel [ɐ̃], [ãː], [õː], etc.)[५]


Suprasegmentals
IPA Nagari IAST[२] English equivalent
फलकम्:IPA link stress[७]
(placed before stressed syllable)

See also[सम्पादयतु]

Notes[सम्पादयतु]

  1. १.० १.१ १.२ Devanagari consonant letters such as have the inherent vowel a. Thus, is pronounced ka, even without any vowel sign added. But the IPA and IAST shown here have the consonant k only and do not include the vowel 'a'.
  2. २.० २.१ २.२ Comparison of IAST with ISO 15919 transliteration.
  3. visarga - a diacritic attached to vowels but realized as a consonant
  4. a compound consonant of ज and ञ
  5. ५.० ५.१ ५.२ ५.३ ५.४ Vowels may occur nasalised as an allophone of the nasal consonants in certain positions: see anusvara and chandrabindu.
  6. Sanskrit distinguishes between long and short vowels. Each monophthong has a long and short phoneme. The diphthongs, historically /əi, aːi, əu, aːu/, also have a difference in quality: [e, ei, o, ou]. Rarely, vowels may be extra-long.
  7. In Classical Sanskrit, stress was predictable by syllable weight: counting from the end of a word, the second-last was stressed if heavy (having a long vowel or a coda consonant); if it was light, the third-last was stressed if heavy; otherwise, stress fell on the fourth-last syllable. Vedic Sanskrit, in contrast, possessed an unpredictable pitch accent.

References[सम्पादयतु]

फलकम्:IPA keys

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