सदस्यः:Soorya Hebbar/प्रयोगपृष्ठम्/शङ्कराचार्यः

विकिपीडिया, कश्चन स्वतन्त्रः विश्वकोशः
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This page is about an Indian philosopher. For YouTube personality and film producer, see Adi Shankar. For title used in the Advaita traditions, see Shankaracharya.
"Adi Shankaracharya" redirects here. For the 1983 Indian film, see Adi Shankaracharya (film).

फलकम्:Good article फलकम्:EngvarB


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Painting of Adi Shankara, exponent of Advaita Vedanta with his disciples by Raja Ravi Varma
जन्मतिथिः c. 700 CE (disputed)[१]
जन्मस्थानम् Kalady, Kongu Chera dynasty (present-day Kochi, India)
पूर्वाश्रमनाम Shankara
मृत्युतिथिः c. 750 CE (disputed)[१]
मृत्युस्थानम् Kedarnath, Gurjara-Pratihara dynasty (present-day Uttarakhand, India)
गुरुः/गुरवः Govinda Bhagavatpada
तत्त्वचिन्तनम् Advaita Vedanta
सम्मानाः Jagadguru

आदिशङ्कराचार्यः कश्चन भारतीयः तत्त्वज्ञानी [२] । सः अद्वैतवेदान्ततत्त्वस्य प्रमुखः प्रतिपादकः.[३][४][५][६][७] । हिन्दूधर्मस्य अनेकेषु अंशेषु अनेन सामञ्जस्यं समानता च आनीता ।


संस्कृतभाषायां शङ्कराचार्येण लिखिताः ग्रन्थाः आत्मतत्त्वस्य, निर्गुणब्रह्मणः च विषयं मुख्यतया प्रतिपादयन्ति[८] ब्रह्मसूत्रम्, उपनिषदः, भगवद्गीता इति प्रस्थानत्रयस्य भाष्यं शङ्कराचार्येण विरचितम् । तच्च शाङ्करभाष्यम् इति नाम्ना प्रसिद्धं वर्तते [९] । शङ्कराचार्यस्य ग्रन्थेषु उपनिषत्सु साररूपेण उक्तस्य तत्त्वस्य विस्तृतिः दृश्यते । मीमांसाशास्त्रस्य विमर्शः अपि शङ्कराचार्येण कृतः [१०] । हिन्दूबौद्धधर्मयोः मध्ये कः भेदः इत्यपि तेन विवृतम् । सनातनवेदान्ते आत्मनः स्वरूपं चर्चितम्, बौद्धदर्शने तु आत्मनः अभावः उक्तः । अतः अद्वैतमतस्य प्रमुखः आचार्यः शङ्कराचार्यः बौद्धविरोधी इति वादः अपि वर्तते । परन्तु एतं मतम् अनेके खण्डितवन्तः सन्ति [११][१२][१३]


शङ्कराचार्यः धर्मप्रसाराय समग्रं भारतम् अटितवान् । तेन स्वकीयतत्त्वस्य प्रसारः तेन कृतः । एवं सञ्चारावसरे अनेकाः वादगोष्ठ्यः प्रवृत्ताः । तत्र सर्वत्र स्वयुक्ति स्वीयं वादं मण्डयन् शङ्कराचार्यः वाक्यार्थेषु जयम् अलभत । तदनन्तरकाले धर्मतत्त्वप्रसाराय शङ्कराचार्येण तत्र तत्र मठाः संस्थापिताः । दशनामीसम्प्रदायस्य, पञ्चायतनपूजायाः, षण्मतसम्प्रदायस्य च स्थापकः शङ्कराचार्यः इति प्रतीतिः वर्तते [१४]

जीवनचरित्रम्[सम्पादयतु]

शङ्कराचार्यविषये दशाधिकानि जीवनचरित्राणि लिखितानि सन्ति [१५]। तत्र शङ्करविजयः इति नाम्नैव बहवः ग्रन्थाः लिखिताः । तेषु माधवीयशङ्करदिग्विजयः इति ग्रन्थः प्रसिद्धः वर्तते । गुरुविजयः शङ्कराभ्युदयः शङ्कराचार्यचरितम् इत्यादयोऽपि ग्रन्थाः शङ्कराचार्यस्य जीवनचरित्रं विवृण्वन्ति । तेषु चित्सुखस्य बृहच्छङ्करदिग्विजयग्रन्तः प्रसिद्धः वर्तते । विद्यारण्यस्य शङ्करदिग्विजयः एवं आनन्दगिरेः शङ्करविजयग्रन्थौ अपि प्रसिद्धतमौ[१५] [१६]। चिद्विलासशङ्करविजयम्, केरलीयशङ्करविजयम्, इत्यादिनाम्ना अपि ग्रन्थाः आगताः[१७][१८] । शङ्कराचार्यस्य शिवसायुज्यप्राप्तेः सहस्रात् वर्षेभ्यः परमपि शङ्कराचार्यस्य जीवनचरित्राणि लिखितानि । विविधासु भाषासु अपि शङ्कराचार्यस्य जीवनचरित्रं लिखितं दृश्यते[१९] । जीवचरित्रे अनेके भागाः काल्पनिकाः प्रक्षिप्ताः अपि स्युः एव । परन्तु शङ्कराचार्याणां जीवनस्य अध्ययनार्थम् एतेषु ग्रन्तेषु अनेके विचाराः समुपलभ्यन्ते[१५][२०] । आनन्दगिरेः ग्रन्थे अनेके वास्तवांशाः समुपलभ्यन्ते इति विदुषाम् अभिप्रायः । तत्र वर्णितः शङ्करः शङ्कराचार्यः एव इत्यत्र नास्ति सन्देहः[१६]

The birthplace of Adi Shankara at Kalady

शृङ्गेर्यां विद्यमानानां ताडपत्राणाम् आधारेण इदं ज्ञातम् यत् शङ्कराचार्यः विक्रमादित्यराजस्य चतुर्दशे वयसि जन्म प्राप्तवान् इति । परन्तु अयं कः विक्रमादित्यः इत्यस्मिन् विषये तु सन्देहः वर्तते एव । केचन गुप्तराजः चन्द्रगुप्तविक्रमादित्यः एव अयम् इति कथयन्ति । तेन तस्य शङ्कराचार्यस्य कालः चतुर्थशतकम् इति तेषां निर्णयः । आधुनिकाः अनेके राजानः विक्रमादित्यः चालुक्यवंशीयः अष्टमे शतके स्थितः इति चिन्तयन्ति[२१] । शङ्कराचार्यस्य कालविषये अन्यानि मतानि इत्थं विद्यन्ते [२२]

५०९-४७७ द्वारकापीठम्, गोवर्धनपीठम्, बदरीपीठम्, काञ्चीपीठम् इत्येतेषु मन्दिरेषु स्थितानां शिलानां कार्बन् डेटिङ्ग् तन्त्रज्ञानद्वारा शङ्कराचार्यस्य कालः अयम् इति निर्णयः कृतः । तत्र च क्वचित् कलियुगीय २५९३ तमे वर्षे शङ्करेण निर्मितः अयं देवालयः इति शिलालेखोऽपि विद्यते । [२३][२४] शङ्करसत्पथः शङ्करविजयः प्राचीनशङ्करविचयः इत्यादयो ग्रन्थाः अपि अमुमेव अंशं द्रढयन्ति । काश्मीरस्य राज्ञा गोपादित्येन मन्दिराणि निर्मितानि इति कारणतः शङ्कराचार्यः तस्मात् पूर्वमेव जातः आसीत् इति अनेकेषां विदुषाम् अभिप्रायः ।[२५]

  • क्रि. पू. ४४-१२: आनन्दगिरिरचितस्य शङ्कराचार्यजीवनचरित्रस्य कश्चित् व्याख्याकारः शङ्कराचार्यस्य कालः अयम् इति अभिप्रैति ।
  • षष्ठं शतकम्: आर्. जि भण्डार्कर् वर्यः षष्ठं शतकं शङ्कराचार्यस्य कालं मनुते । [२६]
  • आधुनिकसंशोधकाः शङ्कराचार्यस्य कालः अष्टमशतकस्य पूर्वार्धं मन्वते[२७][२८] जान् कल्लरस्य मतानुसारं शङ्कराचार्यस्य कालः ७००-७५०[१]
  • ७८८-८२०: इदं म्याक्स्मुल्लरस्य मतम् । राधाकृष्णन् अपि इदं मतम् अङ्गीकरोति । [२६][२९][३०] स्वामीतपस्यान्दस्य कालः अयम् इति कारणतः एतन्मतम् उद्भूतम् ।[३१] अतः एव २० तमे शतमाने प्रकाशितेषु अनेकेषु पुस्तकेषु शङ्कराचार्यस्य कालः अयम् इति लिखितं दृश्यते । [२७]
  • ८०५-८९७ CE: वेङ्किटेश्वरः इति विदुषः मतमिदम् । तस्य जीवनं नवत्यधिकवर्षाणि न स्यात्, तर्हि एतावतः ग्रन्थान् न अलेखिष्यत् इति तस्य वादः । [२६]

परन्तु शङ्कराचार्यः अष्टमे शताब्दे एव आसीत् इति अनेकेषां विदुषां निष्कर्षः[४][१५]

जीवनम्[सम्पादयतु]

शङ्कराचार्यः दक्षिणभारते अद्यतने केरलराज्ये कालटीनामके ग्रामे जन्म प्राप्तवान् [३२][१५] । कालटी इत्यस्य कारटी इत्यपि नामान्तरं विद्यते [३३][३४] । तस्य पितरौ नम्बूदरीब्राह्मणौ आस्ताम् [३५][३६] । वार्धक्यपर्यन्तं तयोः सन्तानमेव नासीत् । शिवस्य पूजनेन जातस्य पुत्रस्य शङ्करः इति नामकरणम् अकुरुताम् । शङ्कर इत्यस्य अर्थः शुभं करोति इति [३७] । शङ्करस्य शैशवे एव तत्पिता दिवङ्गतः । [१५] अतः बहुविलम्बेन शङ्करस्य उपनयनम् अभवत् । तन्मात्रा एव उपनयनस्य उत्तरदायित्वं निरूढमासीत् [३८]

शङ्करः बाल्ये एव संन्यासाद् आकृष्टः इति जीवनचरित्रेषु वर्णितम् । परन्तु माता इदं नाङ्गीकृतवती । अष्टमे वर्षे शङ्करः कदाचित् शिवतडागे मकरेण ग्रहीतः[३९] । शङ्करः मातरम् आक्रन्द्य आहूतवान् । यदि संन्यासी भवितुम् अङ्गीकारं ददाति तर्हि मकारत् आत्मानं रक्षामि । नो चेत् मकरान्मृतः भविष्यामि इति इति अवोचत् । माता अङ्गीकारं सूचितवती । शङ्करः मकरान्मुक्तः । ततः शिक्षणार्थं गृहं परित्यक्तुं सः अनुमतः । भारतस्य उत्तरभागं प्रस्थितः शङ्करः गोविन्दभगवत्पादानां शिष्यतां प्राप्तवान् [३९][४०] । शङ्कराचार्यस्य जीवनचरितेषु इदं सर्वं विस्तरेण वर्णितम् । नर्मदातीरे ओंङ्कारेश्वरमन्दिरे शङ्कराचार्यः शिक्षां प्राप्तवान् इति कथाः अपि श्रूयन्ते [४०]

शङ्कराचार्यः कुत्र विद्याभ्यासम् अकरोत् इति विषये तस्य जीवनचरित्रे विभिन्नाः कथाः श्रूयन्ते । केन सह तेन वाक्यार्थगोष्ठीषु वादः कृतः इत्यपि तत्र तत्र उल्लेखः विद्यते । गोविन्दभगवत्पादानां सान्निध्ये वेदम्, उपनिषदः ब्रह्मसूत्राणि च अधीतवान् इत्यत्र तु नास्ति सन्देहः । अध्ययनकाले एव शङ्कराचार्येण अनेके ग्रन्थाः रचिताः विद्यन्ते इत्यत्रापि विप्रतिपत्तिः नास्ति [४१] । गौडपादकारिकां[१५] गुरुमुखात् अधीतवान् । कुमारिलभट्टेन सह प्रभाकरेण सह च मेलनं शङ्कराचार्यस्य आसीत् इत्यपि कथा श्रूयते । मण्डनमिश्रेण सह अनेकैः बौद्धैः सह च शास्त्रार्थः शङ्कराचार्येण कृतः इति कथाः प्रसिद्धाः एव[४०] । एते विषयाः सर्वेषु जीवनचरित्रेषु समानाः । परन्तु अन्येषु विषयेषु भेदः वर्तते [१६][४०]

तत्त्वप्रसाराय प्रवासः, शिष्याः च ।[सम्पादयतु]

शङ्कराचार्यः तत्त्वप्रसाराय गुजराततः बङ्गालपर्यन्तं कन्याकुमारीतः कश्मीरपर्यन्तं च सञ्चारम् अकरोत् । तत्र हिन्दूधर्मस्य शुष्कशास्त्रवादिभिः सह बौद्धविद्वद्भिः सह च चर्चा प्रवृत्ता । जैन-चार्वाकादिभिः सह अपि चर्चा अभवत् । ततः तत्त्वप्रसाराय अनेकेषां मठानां स्थापनमपि अकरोत् [४२] अद्वैतसिद्धान्तस्य प्रसाराय दशाधिकेषु स्थानेषु मठानां स्थापनं विहितम् । दशसु अपि मठेषु पूर्वं संन्यासिनः आसन् । अधुनापि शङ्कराचार्याणां परम्परा चतुर्षु मठेषु दृश्यते । यथा भारती (शृङ्गेरी), सरस्वती (कञ्ची), तीर्थः एवम् आश्रमी (द्वारका). गिरिः, पुरि, वन अरण्य पर्वत सागर इत्यादि नामानि संन्यासिभ्यः शङ्कराचार्यैः कृतानि आसन् । एतानि सर्वाणि अपि नामानि वैदिकवाङ्मयाद् उद्धृतानि[४३]

शङ्कराचार्याणां सञ्चारसमये तेषाम् अनेके शिष्याः अभवन् । पद्मपादाचार्यः, सुरेश्वराचार्यः, तोटकाचार्यः, हस्तामलकाचार्यः, चित्सुखः, पृथ्वीधरः, चिद्विलासयतिः, बोधेन्द्रः, ब्रह्मेन्द्रः, सदानन्दः इत्यादयः तेषां शिष्येषु प्रधानाः । एतेषु अनेके शिष्याः अद्वैतसम्प्रदायस्य अनेकान् ग्रन्थान् रचितवन्तः[४२][४४]

सायुज्यप्राप्तिः[सम्पादयतु]

शङ्कराचार्यः ३२ वर्षाणि यावत् भूलोके जीवित्वा केदारनाथतः हिमालयं प्रति प्रस्थितः । तदन्तरं तं कोऽपि न दृष्टवान् [४३][४५] । केषुचित्त ग्रन्थेषु काञ्चीपुरे अन्तिमकाले शङ्कराचार्यः आसीत् इत्यपि उल्लेखः दृश्यते । केरलतः एव शङ्कराचार्यः अदृश्यः इत्यपि केचन कथयन्ति [४०]

ग्रन्थाः[सम्पादयतु]

अद्वैतसिद्धान्तस्य परमाचार्यः शङ्कराचार्यः । अतः शङ्कराचार्यनाम्नि बहवः ग्रन्थाः समुपलभ्यन्ते । प्रायेण त्रिशताधिकाः ग्रन्थाः शङ्कराचार्यविरचिताः इति प्रसिद्धाः । तेषु शास्त्रग्रन्थाः स्तोत्राणि च सन्ति । अनेकेषां ग्रन्थानां शङ्कराचार्यविरचितानि भाष्याणि समुपलभ्यन्ते । [४५][४६] अत्र शङ्कराचार्यनाम्ना विद्यमानेषु ग्रन्थेषु कति ग्रन्थाः शङ्कराचार्येणैव विरचिताः इति विषये तु विप्रतिपत्तिः विद्यते एव [४७][४८]। बहवः विद्वांसः एतद्विषये अपि शोधकार्यम् अकुर्वन्[४९]

अधिकृताः ग्रन्थाः ।[सम्पादयतु]

शङ्कराचार्याणां स्त्रोत्राणि भाष्याणि च प्रसिद्धानि सन्ति । स्तोत्रकाव्यानां कर्ता शङ्कराचार्यः एव वा इति सन्देहः विद्यते । परन्तु भाष्याणां विषये तु शङ्कराचार्येण एव रचितानि भाष्याणि इति विषये स्पष्टता वर्तते । प्रस्थानत्रयस्य भाष्यम् (ब्रह्मसूत्रम्, भगवद्गीता, उपनिषदः) तु अतीव प्रसिद्धं विद्यते [४५] । एतदतिरिच्य गोविन्दभगवत्पादानां माण्डूक्यकारिकाणाम् विषये अपि भाष्यं रचितम् [५०] योगसूत्रस्य विवरणभाष्यमपि शङ्कराचार्यैरेव कृतम् इति सन्देहरहितं मतम् । आपस्तम्भधर्मसूत्रस्य व्याख्या अपि शङ्कराचार्येण एव रचिता इति विदुषामभिप्रायः । स्तोत्रेषु दक्षिणामूर्तिस्तोत्रम्, भजगोविन्दस्तोत्रम्, शिवानन्दलहरी, कार्पण्यपञ्चकम्, विष्णुषट्पदी, दशश्लोकी, कृष्णाष्टकम् इत्यादीनामपि रचयिता शङ्कराचार्यः एव इति तु निस्सन्देहः [५१][५२]

उपदेशसाहस्री, विवेकचूडामणिः च शङ्कराचार्येण रचिताः प्रकरणग्रन्थाः । बेलवल्कर् वर्येण शङ्कराचार्यस्य पञ्चशताधिकाः रचनाः अङ्गीकर्तुंशक्याः इत्यभिप्रेतम् । कृष्णविषये शिवविषये अपि स्तोत्राणि शङ्कराचार्येण विरचितानि इति कृत्वा शैववैष्णवोभयपन्थे अपि शङ्कराचार्यः आसीत् इति ज्ञायते ।[५३][५२] उपलब्धकृतिषु ब्रह्मसूत्रभाष्यमेव प्राचीनतमम् इति ज्ञायते । ततः पूर्वं रचिताः ग्रन्थाः नष्टाः स्युः इत्यपि अनुमीयते [५४]

शङ्कराचार्यस्य ग्रन्थत्वेन प्रसिद्धाः ग्रन्थाः[सम्पादयतु]

नृसिंहपूर्वतत्पाणीयम् एवं श्वेताश्वतरोपनिषत् इति ग्रन्थद्वयस्य टीका शङ्कराचार्येणैव कृता इति अनेकेषामभिप्रायः [४७][५०][५५] । अन्यासामपि अनेकासाम् उपनिषदां टीकाः शङ्कराचार्यनाम्ना समुपलभ्यन्ते । परन्तु तासां शङ्कराचार्यकर्तृकं सन्दिग्धमेव । कौशीतकी उपनिषत्, मैत्री-उपनिषत् कैवल्योपनिषत् परमहंसोपनिषद्, शाकटायनोपनिषत् माण्डलोपनिषत्, महानारायणोपनिषद्, गोपालतपनीयोपनिषत् इत्यादीषु टीकाकर्तृविषये सन्देहो विद्यते । ब्रह्मसूत्रभाष्ये एतासाम् उपनिषदाम् उल्लेखः शङ्कराचार्येण कृतः इति कारणतः एतासां शङ्कराचार्यकर्तकत्वम् अनुमीयते । परन्तु शैल्यादिपरिशीलनेन तत्र सन्देहो जायते । अतः एतासाम् उपनिषदां विषये सन्देहः तथैव स्थितः वर्तते [५०]


केचन विवेकचूडामणेः अपि शङ्कराचार्यकर्तृकत्वं नाङ्गीकुर्वन्ति [५६] [५७][५८] । यतो हि विवेकचूडामणौ वेदान्तस्य परमः सारः स्पष्टतया न उक्तः । केचन एतस्य अपूर्णः पाठः एव लब्धः अस्ति इत्यपि कथयन्ति । तत्र आधुनिकानां विदुषामेव एतस्य विषये विप्रतिपत्तिः । प्राचीनाः तु शङ्करकर्तृकत्वम् अङ्गीकुर्वन्त्येव [५९] । विवेकचूडामणिः सामान्यजनानां कृते तत्त्वबोधाय रचितः ग्रन्थः । उपनिषदादिभाष्यं तु अधीतन्यायादिशास्त्राणाम् इति भेदोऽपि आधुनिकानां संशयबीजम् [५९][६०]

अपरोक्षानुभूतिः आत्मबोधः इति ग्रन्थद्वयम् शङ्कराचार्यविरचितम् इति निस्सन्देहं वक्तुं शक्यते । परन्तु अत्रापि वैदेशिकाः विद्वांसः विमतिं दर्शयन्ति । तथा हि विष्णुसहस्रमाम एवं सनत्सुजातीयस्य व्याख्या अपि शङ्कराचार्यनाम्ना उपलभ्यते । गायत्रीभाष्यं, सर्वदर्शनसिद्धान्तसङ्ग्रहः, ललितात्रिशतीभाष्यम् इत्यादिकमपि शङ्काराचार्यनाम्नैव समुपलभ्यन्ते । एतेषु केचन ग्रन्थाः शङ्कराचार्यनाम्ना तच्छिष्यैः रचितानि इत्यपि ऊहा क्रियते । .[५०]

वैशिष्ट्यम् ।[सम्पादयतु]

सनातनभारतीयग्रन्थानाम् आधारेण शङ्कराचार्येण अद्वैतवेदान्तस्य एकं प्रारूपं दत्तम् । अष्टमे शताब्दे भारतीयसमाजे विद्यमानाः अनेकाः समस्याः अनेन परिहृताः । धार्मिकरूपेण अनेकेषां विचाराणां स्पष्टता प्राप्ता [६१] । वेदेषु विद्यमानस्य अपारस्य ज्ञानराशेः सारसङ्ग्रहः शङ्कराचार्यैः कृतः । ब्रह्मज्ञानस्य विषये ब्रह्मणः विषये च निष्कर्षः शङ्कराचार्येण दत्तः । जीवन्मुक्तविषये अपि स्पष्टकल्पना अनेनैव उद्भूताः । जनाः कर्ममार्गात् ज्ञानमार्गं प्रति आनीताः ।


सामाजिकपरिवर्तनानि

शङ्कराचार्याणाम् कालपर्यन्तं हिन्दूनां मध्ये अनेकानि मतानि आसन् । कुत्रापि स्पष्टता नासीत् । परन्तु शङ्कराचार्याणाम् उद्बोधनेन हिन्दूनां पद्धतौ क्वचित् समानता आगता । अनेन अग्रे हिन्दूधर्मस्य उपरि आक्रमणं न्यूनं जातम् । यदपि बलात् आक्रमणं यवनैः कृतम् तत्तु हिन्दूधर्मेण अनुभूतमेव । परन्तु बौद्धिकम् आक्रमणं कर्तुं शत्रवः न शक्तवन्तः । शङ्कराचार्याणां तत्त्वज्ञानस्य बलं सुमहत् आसीदेव । स्मार्तसम्प्रदायः इति जनाः शङ्कराचार्याणां तत्त्वानाम् अनुष्ठानम् आरब्धवन्तः । सनातनधर्मीयाणाम् एकतारक्षणार्थं शङ्कराचार्यैः तत्र तत्र अनेके मठाः स्थापिताः । तेषु चतुराम्नायपीठानि प्रसिद्धानि । एतानि च भारतस्य चतुर्षु दिक्षु पुरी-द्वारका-बदरी-शृङ्गेरीपुरेषु वर्तन्ते । एतदतिरिच्यापि अनेकानि मन्दिराणि शङ्कराचार्यकारणतः निर्मितानि निर्मीयमाणानि च विद्यन्ते एव ।

According to these [widely represented contemporary] studies, Shankara only accorded a provisional validity to the knowledge gained by inquiry into the words of the Śruti (Vedas) and did not see the latter as the unique source (pramana) of Brahmajnana. The affirmations of the Śruti, it is argued, need to be verified and confirmed by the knowledge gained through direct experience (anubhava) and the authority of the Śruti, therefore, is only secondary.

—Anantanand Rambachan[६२]

Sengaku Mayeda concurs, adding Shankara maintained the need for objectivity in the process of gaining knowledge (vastutantra), and considered subjective opinions (purushatantra) and injunctions in Śruti (codanatantra) as secondary. Mayeda cites Shankara's explicit statements emphasizing epistemology (pramana-janya) in section 1.18.133 of Upadesasahasri[६३] and section 1.1.4 of Brahmasutra-bhasya.[६४][६५] According to Michael Comans (aka Vasudevacharya), Shankara considered perception and inference as a primary most reliable epistemic means, and where these means to knowledge help one gain "what is beneficial and to avoid what is harmful", there is no need for or wisdom in referring to the scriptures.[६६] In certain matters related to metaphysics and ethics, says Shankara, the testimony and wisdom in scriptures such as the Vedas and the Upanishads become important.[६७]

Shankara cautioned against cherrypicking a phrase or verse out of context from Vedic literature, and remarks in the opening chapter of his Brahmasutra-Bhasya that the Anvaya (theme or purport) of any treatise can only be correctly understood if one attends to the Samanvayat Tatparya Linga, that is six characteristics of the text under consideration: (1) the common in Upakrama (introductory statement) and Upasamhara (conclusions); (2) Abhyasa (message repeated); (3) Apurvata (unique proposition or novelty); (4) Phala (fruit or result derived); (5) Arthavada (explained meaning, praised point) and (6) Yukti (verifiable reasoning).[६८][६९] While this methodology has roots in the theoretical works of Nyaya school of Hinduism, Shankara consolidated and applied it with his unique exegetical method called Anvaya-Vyatireka, which states that for proper understanding one must "accept only meanings that are compatible with all characteristics" and "exclude meanings that are incompatible with any".[७०][७१]

Hacker and Phillips note that this insight into rules of reasoning and hierarchical emphasis on epistemic steps is "doubtlessly the suggestion" of Shankara in Brahma-sutra, an insight that flowers in the works of his companion and disciple Padmapada.[७२] Merrell-Wolff states that Shankara accepts Vedas and Upanishads as a source of knowledge as he develops his philosophical theses, yet he never rests his case on the ancient texts, rather proves each thesis, point by point using pramanas (epistemology), reason and experience.[७३][७४]

Shankara, in his text Upadesasahasri, discourages ritual worship such as oblations to Deva (God), because that assumes the Self within is different from the Brahman.[७५] The "doctrine of difference" is wrong, asserts Shankara, because, "he who knows the Brahman is one and he is another, does not know Brahman".[७६][७७] However, Shankara also asserts that Self-knowledge is realized when one's mind is purified by an ethical life that observes Yamas such as Ahimsa (non-injury, non-violence to others in body, mind and thoughts) and Niyamas. Rituals and rites such as yajna (a fire ritual), asserts Shankara, can help draw and prepare the mind for the journey to Self-knowledge.[७८] He emphasizes the need for ethics such as Akrodha and Yamas during Brahmacharya, stating the lack of ethics as causes that prevent students from attaining knowledge.[७८][७९]

Shankara has been described as influenced by Shaivism and Shaktism. However, his works and philosophy suggest greater overlap with Vaishnavism, influence of Yoga school of Hinduism, but most distinctly his Advaitin convictions with a monistic view of spirituality.[१५][६१][८०]

Philosophy and practice[सम्पादयतु]

Atma Shatkam (The song of the Self):

I am Consciousness, I am Bliss, I am Shiva, I am Shiva.फलकम्:Refn

Without hate, without infatuation, without craving, without greed;
Neither arrogance, nor conceit, never jealous I am;
Neither dharma, nor artha, neither kama, nor moksha am I;
I am Consciousness, I am Bliss, I am Shiva, I am Shiva.

Without sins, without merits, without elation, without sorrow;
Neither mantra, nor rituals, neither pilgrimage, nor Vedas;
Neither the experiencer, nor experienced, nor the experience am I,
I am Consciousness, I am Bliss, I am Shiva, I am Shiva.

Without fear, without death, without discrimination, without caste;
Neither father, nor mother, never born I am;
Neither kith, nor kin, neither teacher, nor student am I;
I am Consciousness, I am Bliss, I am Shiva, I am Shiva.

Without form, without figure, without resemblance am I;
Vitality of all senses, in everything I am;
Neither attached, nor released am I;

I am Consciousness, I am Bliss, I am Shiva, I am Shiva.

—Adi Shankara, Nirvana Shatakam, Hymns 3–6[८१]

Knowledge of Brahman[सम्पादयतु]

Shankara systematised the works of preceding philosophers.[८२] His system marks a turn from realism to idealism.[८३][८४] His Advaita ("non-dualism") interpretation of the sruti postulates the identity of the Self (Ātman) and the Whole (Brahmanफलकम्:Refn). According to Shankara, the one unchanging entity (Brahman) alone is real, while changing entities do not have absolute existence. The key source texts for this interpretation, as for all schools of Vedānta, are the Prasthanatrayi–the canonical texts consisting of the Upanishads, the Bhagavad Gita and the Brahma Sutras.

Practice[सम्पादयतु]

Advaita Vedanta is based on śāstra ("scriptures"), yukti ("reason") and anubhava ("experiential knowledge"), and aided by karmas ("spiritual practices").[८५] Starting from childhood, when learning has to start, the philosophy has to be a way of life. Shankara's primary objective was to understand and explain how moksha is achievable in this life, what it is means to be liberated, free and a Jivanmukta.[६१] His philosophical thesis was that jivanmukti is self-realization, the awareness of Oneness of Self and the Universal Spirit called Brahman.[६१]

Shankara considered the purity and steadiness of mind achieved in Yoga as an aid to gaining moksha knowledge, but such yogic state of mind cannot in itself give rise to such knowledge.[८६] To Shankara, that knowledge of Brahman springs only from inquiry into the teachings of the Upanishads.[८७] The method of yoga, encouraged in Shankara's teachings notes Comans, includes withdrawal of mind from sense objects as in Patanjali's system, but it is not complete thought suppression, instead it is a "meditative exercise of withdrawal from the particular and identification with the universal, leading to contemplation of oneself as the most universal, namely, Consciousness".[८८] Describing Shankara's style of yogic practice, Comans writes:

the type of yoga which Sankara presents here is a method of merging, as it were, the particular (visesa) into the general (samanya). For example, diverse sounds are merged in the sense of hearing, which has greater generality insofar as the sense of hearing is the locus of all sounds. The sense of hearing is merged into the mind, whose nature consists of thinking about things, and the mind is in turn merged into the intellect, which Sankara then says is made into 'mere cognition' (vijnanamatra); that is, all particular cognitions resolve into their universal, which is cognition as such, thought without any particular object. And that in turn is merged into its universal, mere Consciousness (prajnafnaghana), upon which everything previously referred to ultimately depends.[८८]

Shankara rejected those yoga system variations that suggest complete thought suppression leads to liberation, as well the view that the Shrutis teach liberation as something apart from the knowledge of the oneness of the Self. Knowledge alone and insights relating to true nature of things, taught Shankara, is what liberates. He placed great emphasis on the study of the Upanisads, emphasizing them as necessary and sufficient means to gain Self-liberating knowledge. Sankara also emphasized the need for and the role of Guru (Acharya, teacher) for such knowledge.[८८]

Shankara's Vedanta and Mahayana Buddhism[सम्पादयतु]

Shankara's Vedanta shows similarities with Mahayana Buddhism; opponents have even accused Shankara of being a "crypto-Buddhist," a qualification which is rejected by the Advaita Vedanta tradition, given the differences between these two schools. According to Shankara, a major difference between Advaita and Mahayana Buddhism are their views on Atman and Brahman.[८९] According to both Loy and Jayatilleke, more differences can be discerned.[९०][९१]

Differences[सम्पादयतु]

Atman[सम्पादयतु]

According to Shankara, Hinduism believes in the existence of Atman, while Buddhism denies this.[९२] Shankara, citing Katha Upanishad, asserted[१२] that the Hindu Upanishad starts with stating its objective as

... this is the investigation whether after the death of man the soul exists; some assert the soul exists; the soul does not exist, assert others." At the end, states Shankara, the same Upanishad concludes with the words, "it exists."[९३]

Buddhists and Lokāyatas, wrote Shankara, assert that soul does not exist.[११]फलकम्:Refn

There are also differences in the understanding of what "liberation" means. Nirvana, a term more often used in Buddhism, is the liberating realization and acceptance that there is no Self (anatman). Moksha, a term more common in Hinduism, is liberating realization and acceptance of Self and Universal Soul, the consciousness of one's Oneness with all existence and understanding the whole universe as the Self.[९०]

Historical and cultural impact[सम्पादयतु]

सञ्चिका:SankaraSthampaMandapam.jpg
Adi Sankara Keerthi Sthampa Mandapam, Kalady, Kochi

Historical context[सम्पादयतु]

स्क्रिप्ट त्रुटि: "labelled list hatnote" ऐसा कोई मॉड्यूल नहीं है।

Shankara lived in the time of the great "Late classical Hinduism",[९४] which lasted from 650 till 1100 CE.[९४] This era was one of political instability that followed the Gupta dynasty and King Harsha of the 7th century CE.[९५] It was a time of social and cultural change as the ideas of Buddhism, Jainism, Islam and various traditions within Hinduism were competing for members.[९६][९७][९८] Buddhism in particular had emerged as a powerful influence in India's spiritual traditions in the first 700 years of the 1st millennium CE.[९५][९९] Shankara, and his contemporaries, made a significant contribution in understanding Buddhism and the ancient Vedic traditions, then transforming the extant ideas, particularly reforming the Vedanta tradition of Hinduism, making it India's most important tradition for more than a thousand years.[९५]

Influence on Hinduism[सम्पादयतु]

Shankara has an unparallelled status in the tradition of Advaita Vedanta. He travelled all over India to help restore the study of the Vedas.[१००] His teachings and tradition form the basis of Smartism and have influenced Sant Mat lineages.[१०१]

He introduced the Pañcāyatana form of worship, the simultaneous worship of five deities – Ganesha, Surya, Vishnu, Shiva and Devi. Shankara explained that all deities were but different forms of the one Brahman, the invisible Supreme Being.[१०२]

Benedict Ashley credits Adi Shankara for unifying two seemingly disparate philosophical doctrines in Hinduism, namely Atman and Brahman.[१०३] Isaeva states Shankara's influence included reforming Hinduism, founding monasteries, edifying disciples, disputing opponents and engaging in philosophic activity that, in the eyes of Indian tradition, help revive "the orthodox idea of the unity of all beings" and Vedanta thought.[१०४]

Prior to Shankara, views similar to his already existed, but did not occupy a dominant position within the Vedanta.[१०५] Nakamura states that the early Vedanta scholars were from the upper classes of society, well-educated in traditional culture. They formed a social elite, "sharply distinguished from the general practitioners and theologians of Hinduism."[१०६] Their teachings were "transmitted among a small number of selected intellectuals".[१०६] Works of the early Vedanta schools do not contain references to Vishnu or Shiva.[१०७] It was only after Shankara that "the theologians of the various sects of Hinduism utilized Vedanta philosophy to a greater or lesser degree to form the basis of their doctrines,"[१०८] for example the Nath-tradition,[१०९] whereby "its theoretical influence upon the whole of Indian society became final and definitive."[१०६]

Critical assessment[सम्पादयतु]

Some scholars doubt Shankara's early influence in India.[११०] The Buddhist scholar Richard E. King states,

Although it is common to find Western scholars and Hindus arguing that Sankaracarya was the most influential and important figure in the history of Hindu intellectual thought, this does not seem to be justified by the historical evidence.[१११]

According to King and Roodurmun, until the 10th century Shankara was overshadowed by his older contemporary Mandana-Misra, the latter considered to be the major representative of Advaita.[१११][११२] Other scholars state that the historical records for this period are unclear, and little reliable information is known about the various contemporaries and disciples of Shankara.[११३] For example, Advaita tradition holds that Mandana-Misra is the same person as Suresvara, a name he adopted after he became a disciple of Shankara after a public debate which Shankara won.[११४][११५]

Some scholars state that Maṇḍana-Miśra and Sureśvara must have been two different scholars, because their scholarship is quite different.[११६][११४] Other scholars, on the other hand, state that Mandana-Miśra and Shankara do share views, because both emphasize that Brahman-Atman can not be directly perceived, rather it is discovered and defined through elimination of division (duality) of any kind.[११७][११३] The Self-realization (Soul-knowledge), suggest both Mandana Misra and Shankara, can be described cataphatically (positive liberation, freedom through knowledge, jivanmukti moksha) as well as apophatically (removal of ignorance, negation of duality, negation of division between people or souls or spirit-matter).[११७] While both share core premises, states Isaeva, they differ in several ways, with Mandana Misra holding Vedic knowledge as an absolute and end in itself, while Shankara holds Vedic knowledge and all religious rites as subsidiary and means to the human longing for "liberation, freedom and moksha".[११७]

Several scholars suggest that the historical fame and cultural influence of Shankara grew centuries later, particularly during the era of Muslim invasions and consequent devastation of India.[११०][११८] Many of Shankara's biographies were created and published in and after 14th century, such as the widely cited Vidyaranya's Śankara-vijaya. Vidyaranya, also known as Madhava, who was the 12th Jagadguru of the Śringeri Śarada Pītham from 1380 to 1386,[११९] inspired the re-creation of the Hindu Vijayanagara Empire of South India in response to the devastation caused by the Islamic Delhi Sultanate.[११८][१२०] He and his brothers, suggest Paul Hacker and other scholars,[११०][११८] wrote about Śankara as well as extensive Advaitic commentaries on Vedas and Dharma. Vidyaranya was a minister in Vijayanagara Empire and enjoyed royal support,[१२०] and his sponsorship and methodical efforts helped establish Shankara as a rallying symbol of values, and helped spread historical and cultural influence of Shankara's Vedanta philosophies. Vidyaranya also helped establish monasteries (mathas) to expand the cultural influence of Shankara.[११०] It may be these circumstances, suggest scholars,[१२१] that grew and credited Shankara for various Hindu festive traditions such as the Kumbh Mela – one of the world's largest periodic religious pilgrimages.[१२२]

Mathas[सम्पादयतु]

Vidyashankara temple at Sringeri Sharada Peetham, Shringeri

Shankara is regarded as the founder of the Daśanāmi Sampradāya of Hindu monasticism and Ṣaṇmata of Smarta tradition. He unified the theistic sects into a common framework of Shanmata system.[१२३] Advaita Vedanta is, at least in the west, primarily known as a philosophical system. But it is also a tradition of renunciation. Philosophy and renunciation are closely related:[web १]

Most of the notable authors in the advaita tradition were members of the sannyasa tradition, and both sides of the tradition share the same values, attitudes and metaphysics.[web १]

Shankara, himself considered to be an incarnation of Shiva,[web १] established the Dashanami Sampradaya, organizing a section of the Ekadandi monks under an umbrella grouping of ten names.[web १] Several other Hindu monastic and Ekadandi traditions remained outside the organisation of the Dasanāmis.[१२४][१२५]

Adi Sankara organised the Hindu monks of these ten sects or names under four Maṭhas (Sanskrit: मठ) (monasteries), with the headquarters at Dvārakā in the West, Jagannatha Puri in the East, Sringeri in the South and Badrikashrama in the North.[web १] Each math was headed by one of his four main disciples, who each continues the Vedanta Sampradaya.

Yet, according to Pandey, these Mathas were not established by Shankara himself, but were originally ashrams established by Vibhāņdaka and his son Ŗșyaśŗnga.[१२६] Shankara inherited the ashrams at Dvārakā and Sringeri, and shifted the ashram at Śŗngaverapura to Badarikāśrama, and the ashram at Angadeśa to Jagannātha Purī.[१२७]

The advaita sampradaya is not a Shaiva sect,[web १][१२८] despite the historical links with Shaivism:

Advaitins are non-sectarian, and they advocate worship of Shiva and Vishnu equally with that of the other deities of Hinduism, like Sakti, Ganapati and others.[web १]

Nevertheless, contemporary Sankaracaryas have more influence among Shaiva communities than among Vaisnava communities.[web १] The greatest influence of the gurus of the advaita tradition has been among followers of the Smartha Tradition, who integrate the domestic Vedic ritual with devotional aspects of Hinduism.[web १]

According to Nakamura, these mathas contributed to the influence of Shankara, which was "due to institutional factors".[८२] The mathas which he built exist until today, and preserve the teachings and influence of Shankara, "while the writings of other scholars before him came to be forgotten with the passage of time".[१२९]

The table below gives an overview of the four Amnaya Mathas founded by Shankara, and their details.[web २]

Shishya
(lineage)
Direction Maṭha Mahāvākya Veda Sampradaya
Padmapāda East Puri Govardhanmaṭha Pīṭhaṃ Prajñānam brahma (Consciousness is Brahman) Rig Veda Bhogavala
Sureśvara South Sringeri Śārada Pīṭhaṃ Aham brahmāsmi (I am Brahman) Yajur Veda Bhūrivala
Hastāmalakācārya West Dvāraka Śārada Pīṭhaṃ Tattvamasi (That thou art) Sama Veda Kitavala
Toṭakācārya North Badari Jyotirmaṭha Pīṭhaṃ Ayamātmā brahma (This Atman is Brahman) Atharva Veda Nandavala

Smarta Tradition[सम्पादयतु]

मुख्यलेखः : Smarta Tradition

Traditionally, Shankara is regarded as the greatest teacher[१३०][१३१] and reformer of the Smarta.[१३२][१३१]

According to Alf Hiltebeitel, Shankara established the nondualist interpretation of the Upanishads as the touchstone of a revived smarta tradition:

Practically, Shankara fostered a rapprochement between Advaita and smarta orthodoxy, which by his time had not only continued to defend the varnasramadharma theory as defining the path of karman, but had developed the practice of pancayatanapuja ("five-shrine worship") as a solution to varied and conflicting devotional practices. Thus one could worship any one of five deities (Vishnu, Siva, Durga, Surya, Ganesa) as one's istadevata ("deity of choice").[१३३]

Film[सम्पादयतु]

See also[सम्पादयतु]

Notes[सम्पादयतु]

References[सम्पादयतु]

  1. १.० १.१ १.२ Koller, John M. (2013). Chad V. Meister & Paul Copan. ed. The Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Religion (2nd ed.). Routledge. p. 99. ISBN 978-0-415-78294-4. https://books.google.com/books?id=5KrAa6e_VN4C. 
  2. "Shankara | Indian philosopher". Encyclopedia Britannica. 
  3. Sharma 1962, p. vi.
  4. ४.० ४.१ Comans 2000, p. 163.
  5. Johannes de Kruijf and Ajaya Sahoo (2014), Indian Transnationalism Online: New Perspectives on Diaspora, फलकम्:ISBN, p. 105, Quote: "In other words, according to Adi Shankara's argument, the philosophy of Advaita Vedanta stood over and above all other forms of Hinduism and encapsulated them. This then united Hinduism; (...) Another of Adi Shankara's important undertakings which contributed to the unification of Hinduism was his founding of a number of monastic centers."
  6. Shankara, Student's Encyclopedia Britannia – India (2000), Volume 4, Encyclopaedia Britannica Publishing, फलकम्:ISBN, p. 379, Quote: "Shankaracharya, philosopher and theologian, most renowned exponent of the Advaita Vedanta school of philosophy, from whose doctrines the main currents of modern Indian thought are derived.";
    David Crystal (2004), The Penguin Encyclopedia, Penguin Books, p. 1353, Quote: "[Shankara] is the most famous exponent of Advaita Vedanta school of Hindu philosophy and the source of the main currents of modern Hindu thought."
  7. Christophe Jaffrelot (1998), The Hindu Nationalist Movement in India, Columbia University Press, फलकम्:ISBN, p. 2, Quote: "The main current of Hinduism – if not the only one – which became formalized in a way that approximates to an ecclesiastical structure was that of Shankara".
  8. Sri Adi Shankaracharya, Sringeri Sharada Peetham, India
  9. Pattanaik, Devdutt. "How Adi Shankaracharya united a fragmented land with philosophy, poetry and pilgrimage". Scroll.in. 
  10. Shyama Kumar Chattopadhyaya (2000) The Philosophy of Sankar's Advaita Vedanta, Sarup & Sons, New Delhi फलकम्:ISBN
  11. ११.० ११.१ Edward Roer (Translator), to Brihad Aranyaka Upanishad. फलकम्:Google books
  12. १२.० १२.१ Edward Roer (Translator), फलकम्:Google books to Brihad Aranyaka Upanishad at p. 3, फलकम्:Oclc
  13. KN Jayatilleke (2010), Early Buddhist Theory of Knowledge, फलकम्:ISBN, p. 246–249, from note 385 onwards;
    Steven Collins (1994), Religion and Practical Reason (Editors: Frank Reynolds, David Tracy), State Univ of New York Press, फलकम्:ISBN, p. 64; Quote: "Central to Buddhist soteriology is the doctrine of not-self (Pali: anattā, Sanskrit: anātman, the opposed doctrine of Ātman is central to Brahmanical thought). Put very briefly, this is the [Buddhist] doctrine that human beings have no soul, no self, no unchanging essence.";
    Edward Roer (Translator), फलकम्:Google books]
    Katie Javanaud (2013), Is The Buddhist 'No-Self' Doctrine Compatible With Pursuing Nirvana?, Philosophy Now;
    John C. Plott et al. (2000), Global History of Philosophy: The Axial Age, Volume 1, Motilal Banarsidass, फलकम्:ISBN, p. 63, Quote: "The Buddhist schools reject any Ātman concept. As we have already observed, this is the basic and ineradicable distinction between Hinduism and Buddhism".
  14. १५.० १५.१ १५.२ १५.३ १५.४ १५.५ १५.६ १५.७ Mayeda 2006, pp. 3–5.
  15. १६.० १६.१ १६.२ Isaeva 1993, pp. 69–82.
  16. Vidyasankar, S. "The Sankaravijaya literature".  Unknown parameter |access-date= ignored (help)
  17. Tapasyananda, Swami (2002). Sankara-Dig-Vijaya. p. viii. 
  18. Pande 2011, p. 35.
  19. The hagiographies of Shankara mirror the pattern of synthesizing facts, fiction and legends as with other ancient and medieval era Indian scholars. Some biographic poems depict Shankara as a reincarnation of deity Shiva, much like other Indian scholars are revered as reincarnation of other deities; for example, Mandana-misra is depicted as an embodiment of deity Brahma, Citsukha of deity Varuna, Anandagiri of Agni, among others. See फलकम्:Harvtxt.
  20. K.A. Nilakantha Sastry, A History of South India, 4th ed., Oxford University Press, Madras, 1976.
  21. Isaeva 1993, pp. 83–87.
  22. Roshen Dalal (2010). Hinduism: An Alphabetical Guide. Penguin. p. 376. ISBN 978-0-14-341421-6. https://books.google.com/books?id=DH0vmD8ghdMC&pg=PA376. 
  23. T.S. Narayana Sastry (1916, republished 1971), The Age of Sankara
  24. "Dating Adi Shankara". IndiaDivine.org (in en-US).  Unknown parameter |access-date= ignored (help)
  25. २६.० २६.१ २६.२ Y. Keshava Menon, The Mind of Adi Shankaracharya 1976 pp. 108
  26. २७.० २७.१ Adi Shankara, Encyclopedia Britannica (2015)
  27. N.V. Isaeva (1993). Shankara and Indian Philosophy. State University of New York Press. pp. 84–87 with footnotes. ISBN 978-0-7914-1281-7. https://books.google.com/books?id=hshaWu0m1D4C. 
  28. The dating of 788–820 is accepted in Keay, p. 194.
  29. Madhava-Vidyaranya. Sankara Digvijaya – The traditional life of Sri Sankaracharya, Sri Ramakrishna Math. फलकम्:ISBN. Source: [१] (accessed: 14 Sep 2016), p. 20
  30. Tapasyananda, Swami (2002). Shankara-Dig-Vijaya. pp. xv–xxiv. 
  31. Students' Britannica India. Popular Prakashan. 2000. pp. 379–. ISBN 978-0-85229-760-5. https://books.google.com/books?id=ISFBJarYX7YC&pg=PA379. 
  32. Narasingha Prosad Sil (1997). Swami Vivekananda: A Reassessment. Susquehanna University Press. p. 192. ISBN 978-0-945636-97-7. https://books.google.com/books?id=pTDPlJPyV_MC. 
  33. this may be the present day Kalady in central Kerala.The house he was born is still maintained as Melpazhur Mana
  34. Joël André-Michel Dubois (2014). The Hidden Lives of Brahman: Sankara's Vedanta Through His Upanisad Commentaries, in Light of Contemporary Practice. SUNY Press.
  35. Roshen Dalal (2010). The Religions of India: A Concise Guide to Nine Major Faiths. Penguin Books India.
  36. Adago, John (2018). East Meets West. UK: Program Publishing; 2 edition. ISBN 978-0692124215. 
  37. Menon, Y. Keshava (1976). The Mind of Adi Shankara. Jaico. p. 109. ISBN 978-8172242145. 
  38. ३९.० ३९.१ Isaeva 1993, pp. 74–75.
  39. ४०.० ४०.१ ४०.२ ४०.३ ४०.४ Pande 2011, pp. 31–32, also 6–7, 67–68.
  40. Isaeva 1993, pp. 76–77.
  41. ४२.० ४२.१ Pande 2011, pp. 5–36.
  42. ४३.० ४३.१ Isaeva 1993, pp. 82–91.
  43. Isaeva 1993, pp. 71–82, 93–94.
  44. ४५.० ४५.१ ४५.२ Mayeda 2006, pp. 6–7.
  45. Isaeva 1993, pp. 2–3.
  46. ४७.० ४७.१ Paul Hacker, Philology and Confrontation: Paul Hacker on Traditional and Modern Vedanta (Editor: Wilhelm Halbfass), State University of New York Press, फलकम्:ISBN, pp. 30–31
  47. W Halbfass (1983), Studies in Kumarila and Sankara, Studien zur Indologie und Iranistik, Monographic 9, Reinbeck
  48. M Piantelly, Sankara e la Renascita del Brahmanesimo, Indian Philosophical Quarterly, Vol. 4, No. 3 (Apr. 1977), pp. 429–435
  49. ५०.० ५०.१ ५०.२ ५०.३ Pande 2011, pp. 105–113.
  50. Isaeva 1993, pp. 93–97.
  51. ५२.० ५२.१ Pande 2011, pp. 351–352.
  52. Pande 2011, pp. 113–115.
  53. Mishra, Godavarisha. "A Journey through Vedantic History – Advaita in the Pre-Sankara, Sankara and Post-Sankara Periods". Archived from the original on 22 June 2006.  Unknown parameter |access-date= ignored (help)
  54. Vidyasankar, S. "Sankaracarya". Archived from the original on 16 June 2006.  Unknown parameter |access-date= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  55. Adi Shankaracharya, Vivekacūḍāmaṇi S Madhavananda (Translator), Advaita Ashrama (1921)
  56. Grimes 2004.
  57. Shah-Kazemi 2006, p. 4.
  58. ५९.० ५९.१ Grimes 2004, p. 23.
  59. Grimes 2004, p. 13.
  60. ६१.० ६१.१ ६१.२ ६१.३ John Koller (2007), in Chad Meister and Paul Copan (Editors): The Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Religion, Routledge, फलकम्:ISBN, pp. 98–106
  61. उद्धरणे दोषः : अमान्या <ref> शृङ्खला; rambachanepis इत्यस्य आधारः अज्ञातः
  62. Note: some manuscripts list this verse as 2.18.133, while Mayeda lists it as 1.18.133, because of interchanged chapter numbering; see Upadesa Sahasri: A Thousand Teachings, S Jagadananda (Translator, 1949), फलकम्:ISBN, Verse 2.8.133, p. 258;
    Karl H Potter (2014), The Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies, Volume 3, Princeton University Press, फलकम्:ISBN, p. 249
  63. Mayeda 2006, pp. 46–47.
  64. Brahmasutra-bhasya 1.1.4, S Vireswarananda (Translator), p. 35
  65. Comans 2000, p. 168.
  66. Comans 2000, pp. 167–169.
  67. George Thibaut (Translator), Brahma Sutras: With Commentary of Shankara, Reprinted as फलकम्:ISBN, pp. 31–33 verse 1.1.4
  68. Mayeda 2006, pp. 46–53.
  69. Mayeda & Tanizawa (1991), Studies on Indian Philosophy in Japan, 1963–1987, Philosophy East and West, Vol. 41, No. 4, pp. 529–535
  70. Michael Comans (1996), Śankara and the Prasankhyanavada, Journal of Indian Philosophy, Vol. 24, No. 1, pp. 49–71
  71. Stephen Phillips (2000) in Roy W. Perrett (Editor), Epistemology: Indian Philosophy, Volume 1, Routledge, फलकम्:ISBN, pp. 224–228 with notes 8, 13 and 63
  72. Franklin Merrell-Wolff (1995), Transformations in Consciousness: The Metaphysics and Epistemology, State University of New York Press, फलकम्:ISBN, pp. 242–260
  73. Will Durant (1976), Our Oriental Heritage: The Story of Civilization, Simon & Schuster, फलकम्:ISBN, Chapter XIX, Section VI
  74. Shankara, himself, had renounced all religious ritual acts; see Karl Potter (2008), Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies Vol. III, Motilal Banarsidass, फलकम्:ISBN, p. 16;
    For an example of Shankara's reasoning "why rites and ritual actions should be given up", see Karl Potter on p. 220;
    Elsewhere, Shankara's Bhasya on various Upanishads repeat "give up rituals and rites", see for example Shankara's Bhasya on Brihadaranyaka Upanishad pp. 348–350, 754–757
  75. Sanskrit:Upadesha sahasri
    English Translation: S Jagadananda (Translator, 1949), Upadeshasahasri, Vedanta Press, फलकम्:ISBN, pp. 16–17; फलकम्:Oclc
  76. Karl Potter (2008), Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies Vol. III, Motilal Banarsidass, फलकम्:ISBN, pp. 219–221
  77. ७८.० ७८.१ Mayeda 2006, pp. 92–93.
  78. Karl Potter (2008), Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies Vol. III, Motilal Banarsidass, फलकम्:ISBN, pp. 218–219
  79. Isaeva 1993, pp. 3, 29–30.
    • Original Sanskrit: Nirvanashtakam Sringeri Vidya Bharati Foundation (2012);
    • English Translation 1: K Parappaḷḷi and CNN Nair (2002), Saankarasaagaram, Bhartiya Vidya Bhavan, फलकम्:ISBN, pp. 58–59;
    • English Translation 2: Igor Kononenko (2010), Teachers of Wisdom, फलकम्:ISBN, p. 148;
    • English Translation 3: Nirvana Shatakam Isha Foundation (2011); Includes translation, transliteration and audio.
  80. ८२.० ८२.१ Nakamura 2004, p. 680.
  81. Sharma 2000, p. 64.
  82. Scheepers 2000, p. 123.
  83. "Study the Vedas daily. Perform diligently the duties ("karmas") ordained by them", Sadhana Panchakam of Shankara
  84. Anantanand Rambachan, The limits of scripture: Vivekananda's reinterpretation of the Vedas. University of Hawaii Press, 1994, pp. 124–125: [२].
  85. Isaeva 1993, पृष्ठम् 57–58. Quote: "Shankara directly identifies this awakened atman with Brahman and the higher knowledge. And Brahman, reminds the Advaitist, is known only from the Upanishadic sayings".
  86. ८८.० ८८.१ ८८.२ Michael Comans (1993), The question of the importance of Samādhi in modern and classical Advaita Vedānta, Philosophy East & West. Vol. 43, Issue 1, pp. 19–38
  87. Isaeva 1993, pp. 60, 145–154.
  88. ९०.० ९०.१ David Loy (1982), Enlightenment in Buddhism and Advaita Vedanta: Are Nirvana and Moksha the Same?, International Philosophical Quarterly, 23(1), pp. 65–74
  89. KN Jayatilleke (2010), Early Buddhist Theory of Knowledge, फलकम्:ISBN, pp. 246–249, from note 385 onwards
  90. Gerald McDermott and Harold A. Netland (2014), A Trinitarian Theology of Religions: An Evangelical Proposal, Oxford University Press, फलकम्:ISBN, p. 131
  91. Sankara Charya, फलकम्:Google books, RJ Tatya, Bombay Theosophical Publication
  92. ९४.० ९४.१ Michaels 2004, p. 41–43.
  93. ९५.० ९५.१ ९५.२ John Koller (2012), Shankara in Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Religion (Editors: Chad Meister, Paul Copan), Routledge, फलकम्:ISBN, pp. 99–108
  94. Doniger, Wendy. (March 2014). On Hinduism. Oxford. ISBN 9780199360079. OCLC 858660095. 
  95. TMP Mahadevan (1968), Shankaracharya, National Book Trust, pp. 283–285, फलकम्:Oclc
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Sources[सम्पादयतु]

Printed sources[सम्पादयतु]

Web-sources[सम्पादयतु]

  1. १.० १.१ १.२ १.३ १.४ १.५ १.६ १.७ १.८ "Sankara Acarya Biography – Monastic Tradition". Archived from the original on 8 May 2012.  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  2. "Adi Shankara's four Amnaya Peethams". Archived from the original on 26 June 2006.  Unknown parameter |access-date= ignored (help)

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