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Erbium,  68Er
General properties
Name, symbol erbium, Er
Pronunciation /ˈɜːrbiəm/
Appearance silvery white
Erbium in the periodic table
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline earth metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline earth metal)
Aluminium (post-transition metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline earth metal)
Scandium (transition metal)
Titanium (transition metal)
Vanadium (transition metal)
Chromium (transition metal)
Manganese (transition metal)
Iron (transition metal)
Cobalt (transition metal)
Nickel (transition metal)
Copper (transition metal)
Zinc (transition metal)
Gallium (post-transition metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline earth metal)
Yttrium (transition metal)
Zirconium (transition metal)
Niobium (transition metal)
Molybdenum (transition metal)
Technetium (transition metal)
Ruthenium (transition metal)
Rhodium (transition metal)
Palladium (transition metal)
Silver (transition metal)
Cadmium (transition metal)
Indium (post-transition metal)
Tin (post-transition metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline earth metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transition metal)
Tantalum (transition metal)
Tungsten (transition metal)
Rhenium (transition metal)
Osmium (transition metal)
Iridium (transition metal)
Platinum (transition metal)
Gold (transition metal)
Mercury (transition metal)
Thallium (post-transition metal)
Lead (post-transition metal)
Bismuth (post-transition metal)
Polonium (post-transition metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline earth metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transition metal)
Dubnium (transition metal)
Seaborgium (transition metal)
Bohrium (transition metal)
Hassium (transition metal)
Meitnerium (unknown chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unknown chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unknown chemical properties)
Copernicium (transition metal)
Ununtrium (unknown chemical properties)
Flerovium (post-transition metal)
Ununpentium (unknown chemical properties)
Livermorium (unknown chemical properties)
Ununseptium (unknown chemical properties)
Ununoctium (unknown chemical properties)


Atomic number (Z) 68
Group, block group n/a, f-block
Period period 6
Element category   lanthanide
Standard atomic weight (±) (Ar) 167.259(3)[१]
Electron configuration [Xe] 4f12 6s2
per shell
2, 8, 18, 30, 8, 2
Physical properties
Phase solid
Melting point 1802 K ​(1529 °C, ​2784 °F)
Boiling point 3141 K ​(2868 °C, ​5194 °F)
Density near r.t. 9.066 g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p. 8.86 g/cm3
Heat of fusion 19.90 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization 280 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity 28.12 J/(mol·K)
vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1504 1663 (1885) (2163) (2552) (3132)
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 3, 2, 1 ​(a basic oxide)
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 1.24
Ionization energies 1st: 589.3 kJ/mol
2nd: 1150 kJ/mol
3rd: 2194 kJ/mol
Atomic radius empirical: 176 pm
Covalent radius 189±6 pm
Crystal structurehexagonal close-packed (hcp)
Hexagonal close packed crystal structure for erbium
Speed of sound thin rod 2830 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion poly: 12.2 µm/(m·K) (r.t.)
Thermal conductivity 14.5 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity poly: 0.860 µΩ·m (r.t.)
Magnetic ordering paramagnetic at 300 K
Young's modulus 69.9 GPa
Shear modulus 28.3 GPa
Bulk modulus 44.4 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.237
Vickers hardness 430–700 MPa
Brinell hardness 600–1070 MPa
CAS Number 7440-52-0
Naming after Ytterby (Sweden), where it was mined
Discovery Carl Gustaf Mosander (1842)
Most stable isotopes of erbium
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
160Er syn 28.58 h ε 0.330 160Ho
162Er 0.139% >1.4×1014 y (α) 1.6460 158Dy
(β+β+) 1.8445 162Dy
164Er 1.601% ≥2.05×1039 y[२] (α) 1.3041 160Dy
+β+) 0.0241 164Dy
165Er syn 10.36 h ε 0.376 165Ho
166Er 33.503% (α) 0.8309 162Dy
167Er 22.869% (α) 0.6657 163Dy
168Er 26.978% (α) 0.5527 164Dy
169Er syn 9.4 d β 0.351 169Tm
170Er 14.910% >3.2×1017 y (α) 0.0502 166Dy
(ββ) 0.6536 170Yb
171Er syn 7.516 h β 1.490 171Tm
172Er syn 49.3 h β 0.891 172Tm
Decay modes in parentheses are predicted, but have not yet been observed
| references

एकं भौतिकतत्त्वम् अस्ति।

  1. Standard Atomic Weights 2013. Commission on Isotopic Abundances and Atomic Weights
  2. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0370269314006741
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